- 4:1-20 – This is all a lament based on the suffering endured in exile. The people have been scattered and feel completely forsaken.
- 4:21-22 – Zion represents the Israelites while Edom was the name given to Esau’s descendants.
- 5:1-22 – Though the author is aware that their sins have caused their suffering, he is desperate for God to rescue and restore them. After a while they begin to wonder if God will ever do so.